In a medium saucepan, stir together the 2 cloves chopped garlic, onion, cilantro, jalapeño, broth, mustard, 2 tablespoons oil, ¾ cup water and ¾ teaspoon salt; bring to a boil over medium-high heat. Using an immersion blender, blend until finely chopped. Return to a boil and stir in the rice; cover tightly and simmer over medium-low heat until cooked, about 15 minutes. Remove from the heat and let stand for 5 minutes. Add the lime zest and fluff with a fork.
Meanwhile, in a blender, combine the tomatoes, chiles, remaining 2 tablespoons oil, remaining 3 whole cloves garlic and ½ cup water until smooth; season with about 1 teaspoon salt. Transfer to a large skillet and cook until heated, about 5 minutes. Add the shrimp and cook, stirring occasionally, until cooked through, about 4 minutes. Serve with the rice.