In a small bowl, stir together the lemon zest and ¼ cup of the sugar.
Preheat the oven to 350 degrees with a rack in the middle and fill 12 muffin cups with paper liners.
In a large bowl, whisk together the flour, cornmeal, baking powder, salt, baking soda and remaining ¼ cup sugar. In a medium bowl, beat together the eggs, sour cream, oil, milk and vanilla until smooth. Add to the flour mixture and stir until just combined. Fold in the remaining 1 cup blueberries. Pour the batter into each prepared muffin pan cup until two-thirds full. Spoon about 1 teaspoon of the blueberry compote into each muffin batter center and, using a fork, swirl. Sprinkle generously with the lemon sugar. Bake until a toothpick inserted in the center comes out clean, about 20 minutes. Let cool on a rack before serving.